What do you know about your kidney?

It is another lovely moment on this platform for all of us to learn and know more about what is necessary about our existence as it pertains to healthy living.

 

One of the major organ that is essential for healthy living in life is known as Kidney.

While many of us know about the presence of the Kidney as part of the essential organ in our body, it is few people that knows and understand what its functions are all about not to talk about how this essential organ can be maintained and properly taken care of.

 

I was excited and took it as a responsibility and a duty to engage my followers, viewers and readers on a journey of exposition on the Kidney when I understand from a radio programme that today is earmarked all over the world as THE WORLD KIDNEY DAY.

 

It is on this note that I present to you some form of write up on what the kidney is all about and the rationale behind today been celebrated as  THE WORLD KIDNEY DAY.

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space, and in adult humans are about 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder.

The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each human adult kidney contains around 1 million nephrons, while a mouse kidney contains only about 12,500 nephrons. The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins. Filtration occurs in the glomerulus: one-fifth of the blood volume that enters the kidneys is filtered. Examples of substances reabsorbed are solute-free water, sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, and amino acids. Examples of substances secreted are hydrogen, ammonium, potassium and uric acid. The kidneys also carry out functions independent of the nephron. For example, they convert a precursor of vitamin D to its active form, calcitriol; and synthesize the hormones erythropoietin and renin.

 

850 MILLION PEOPLE WORLDWIDE are now estimated to have kidney diseases from various causes. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes at least 2.4 million deaths per year and is now the 6th fastest growing cause of death. Despite the growing burden of kidney diseases worldwide, kidney health disparity and inequity are still widespread. Kidney Health for Everyone Everywhere calls for universal health coverage (UHC) for prevention and early treatment of kidney diseases.

 

Renal physiology is the study of kidney function. Nephrology is the medical specialty which addresses diseases of kidney function: these include chronic kidney disease, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis. Urology addresses diseases of kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.

 

 

kidney 1

 

TYPES OF KIDNEY DISEASES.

There are different types of kidney diseases, these are viz:

•Abderhalden–Kaufmann–Lignac syndrome (Nephropathic Cystinosis)
•Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
•Acetaminophen-induced Nephrotoxicity
•Acute Kidney Failure/Acute Kidney Injury
•Acute Lobar Nephronia
•Acute Phosphate Nephropathy
•Acute Tubular Necrosis
•Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency
•Adenovirus Nephritis
•Alagille Syndrome
•Alport Syndrome
•Amyloidosis
•ANCA Vasculitis Related to Endocarditis and Other Infections
•Angiomyolipoma
•Analgesic Nephropathy
•Anorexia Nervosa and Kidney Disease
•Angiotensin Antibodies and Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
•Anticoagulant-related Neprhopathy
•Antiphospholipid Syndrome
•Anti-TNF-α Therapy-related Glomerulonephritis
•APOL1 Mutations
•Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome
•Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy, Chinese Herbal Nephropathy, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy
•Arteriovenous Malformations and Fistulas of the Urologic Tract
•Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia
•Bardet-Biedl Syndrome
•Bartter Syndrome
•Bath Salts and Acute Kidney Injury
•Beer Potomania
•Beeturia
•β-Thalassemia Renal Disease
•Bile Cast Nephropathy
•BK Polyoma Virus Nephropathy in the Native Kidney
•Bladder Rupture
•Bladder Sphincter Dyssynergia
•Bladder Tamponade
•Border-Crossers’ Nephropathy
•Bourbon Virus and Acute Kidney Injury
•Burnt Sugarcane Harvesting and Acute Renal Dysfunction
•Byetta and Renal Failure
•C1q Nephropathy
•C3 Glomerulopathy
•C3 Glomerulopathy with Monoclonal Gammopathy
•C4 Glomerulopathy
•Calcineurin Inhibitor Nephrotoxicity
•Callilepsis Laureola Poisoning
•Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Acute Renal Failure
•Cardiorenal syndrome
•Carfilzomib-Indiced Renal Injury
•CFHR5 nephropathy
•Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease with Glomerulopathy
•Chinese Herbal Medicines and Nephrotoxicity
•Cherry Concentrate and Acute Kidney Injury
•Cholesterol Emboli
•Churg–Strauss syndrome
•Chyluria
•Ciliopathy
•Cocaine and the Kidney
•Cold Diuresis
•Colistin Nephrotoxicity
•Collagenofibrotic Glomerulopathy
•Collapsing Glomerulopathy, Collapsing Glomerulopathy Related to CMV
•Combination Antiretroviral (cART) Related-Nephropathy
•Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT)
•Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome
•Congestive Renal Failure
•Conorenal syndrome (Mainzer-Saldino Syndrome or Saldino-Mainzer Disease)
•Contrast Nephropathy
•Copper Sulphate Intoxication
•Cortical Necrosis
•Crizotinib-related Acute Kidney Injury
•Cryocrystalglobulinemia
•Cryoglobuinemia
•Crystalglobulin-Induced Nephropathy
•Crystal-Induced Acute Kidney injury
•Crystal-Storing Histiocytosis
•Cystic Kidney Disease, Acquired
•Cystinuria
•Dasatinib-Induced Nephrotic-Range Proteinuria
•Deferasirox (Exjade) Nephrotoxicity
•Dense Deposit Disease (MPGN Type 2)
•Dent Disease (X-linked Recessive Nephrolithiasis)
•DHA Crystalline Nephropathy
•Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome
•Diabetes and Diabetic Kidney Disease
•Diabetes Insipidus
•Dietary Supplements and Renal Failure
•Diffuse Mesangial Sclerosis
•Diuresis
•Djenkol Bean Poisoning (Djenkolism)
•Down Syndrome and Kidney Disease
•Drugs of Abuse and Kidney Disease
•Duplicated Ureter
•EAST syndrome
•Ebola and the Kidney
•Ectopic Kidney
•Ectopic Ureter
•Edema, Swelling
•Erdheim-Chester Disease
•Fabry’s Disease
•Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia
•Fanconi Syndrome
•Fraser syndrome
•Fibronectin Glomerulopathy
•Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis and Immunotactoid Glomerulopathy
•Fraley syndrome
•Fluid Overload, Hypervolemia
•Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Sclerosis, Focal Glomerulosclerosis
•Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (Familial) with Complete Heart Block
•Galloway Mowat syndrome
•Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis with Kidney Involvement
•Gestational Hypertension
•Gitelman Syndrome
•Glomerular Diseases
•Glomerular Tubular Reflux
•Glycosuria
•Goodpasture Syndrome
•Green Smoothie Cleanse Nephropathy
•HANAC Syndrome
•Harvoni (Ledipasvir with Sofosbuvir)-Induced Renal Injury
•Hair Dye Ingestion and Acute Kidney Injury
•Hantavirus Infection Podocytopathy
•Heat Stress Nephropathy
•Hematuria (Blood in Urine)
•Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (aHUS)
•Hemophagocytic Syndrome
•Hemorrhagic Cystitis
•Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS, Hantavirus Renal Disease, Korean Hemorrhagic Fever, Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever, Nephropathis Epidemica)
•Hemosiderinuria
•Hemosiderosis related to Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Hemolytic Anemia
•Hepatic Glomerulopathy
•Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease, Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome
•Hepatitis C-Associated Renal Disease
•Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1β–Associated Kidney Disease
•Hepatorenal Syndrome
•Herbal Supplements and Kidney Disease
•High Altitude Renal Syndrome
•High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease
•HIV-Associated Immune Complex Kidney Disease (HIVICK)
•HIV-Associated Nephropathy (HIVAN)
•HNF1B-related Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease
•Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion)
•Hunner’s Ulcer
•Hydrophilic Polymer Emboli
•Hydroxychloroquine-induced Renal Phospholipidosis
•Hyperaldosteronism
•Hypercalcemia
•Hyperkalemia
•Hypermagnesemia
•Hypernatremia
•Hyperoxaluria
•Hyperphosphatemia
•Hypocalcemia
•Hypocomplementemic Urticarial Vasculitic Syndrome
•Hypokalemia, Hypokalemia-induced renal dysfunction
•Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis
•Hypomagnesemia
•Hyponatremia
•Hypophosphatemia
•Hypophosphatemia in Users of Cannabis
•Hypertension
•Hypertension, Monogenic
•Iced Tea Nephropathy
•Ifosfamide Nephrotoxicity
•IgA Nephropathy
•IgG4 Nephropathy
•Immersion Diuresis
•Immune-Checkpoint Therapy-Related Interstitial Nephritis
•Infliximab-Related Renal Disease
•Interstitial Cystitis, Painful Bladder Syndrome (Questionnaire)
•Interstitial Nephritis
•Interstitial Nephritis, Karyomegalic
•Ivemark’s syndrome
•JC Virus Nephropathy
•Joubert Syndrome
•Ketamine-Associated Bladder Dysfunction
•Kidney Stones, Nephrolithiasis
•Kombucha Tea Toxicity
•Lead Nephropathy and Lead-Related Nephrotoxicity
•Lecithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase Deficiency (LCAT Deficiency)
•Leptospirosis Renal Disease
•Light Chain Deposition Disease, Monoclonal Immunoglobulin Deposition Disease
•Light Chain Proximal Tubulopathy
•Liddle Syndrome
•Lightwood-Albright Syndrome
•Lipoprotein Glomerulopathy
•Lithium Nephrotoxicity
•LMX1B Mutations Cause Hereditary FSGS
•Loin Pain Hematuria
•Lupus, Systemic Lupus Erythematosis
•Lupus Kidney Disease, Lupus Nephritis
•Lupus Nephritis with Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody Seropositivity
•Lupus Podocytopathy
•Lupus-like Nephritis
•Lyme Disease-Associated Glomerulonephritis
•Lysinuric Protein Intolerance
•Lysozyme Nephropathy
•Malarial Nephropathy
•Malignancy-Associated Renal Disease
•Malignant Hypertension
•Malakoplakia
•McKittrick-Wheelock Syndrome
•MDMA (Molly; Ecstacy; 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and Kidney Failure
•Meatal Stenosis
•Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease, Urolodulin-Associated Nephropathy, Juvenile Hyperuricemic Nephropathy Type 1
•Medullary Sponge Kidney
•Megaureter
•Melamine Toxicity and the Kidney
•MELAS Syndrome
•Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
•Membranous Nephropathy
•Membranous-like Glomerulopathy with Masked IgG Kappa Deposits
•MesoAmerican Nephropathy
•Metabolic Acidosis
•Metabolic Alkalosis
•Methotrexate-related Renal Failure
•Microscopic Polyangiitis
•Milk-alkalai syndrome
•Minimal Change Disease
•Monoclonal Gammopathy of Renal Significance, Dysproteinemia
•Mouthwash Toxicity
•MUC1 Nephropathy
•Multicystic dysplastic kidney
•Multiple Myeloma
•Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Glomerulopathy
•Nail-patella Syndrome
•NARP Syndrome
•Nephrocalcinosis
•Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis
•Nephronophthisis due to Nephrocystin-1 Gene Deletions
•Nephroptosis (Floating Kidney, Renal Ptosis)
•Nephrotic Syndrome
•Neurogenic Bladder
•9/11 and Kidney Disease
•Nodular Glomerulosclerosis
•Non-Gonococcal Urethritis
•Nutcracker syndrome
•Oligomeganephronia
•Orofaciodigital Syndrome
•Orotic Aciduria
•Orthostatic Hypotension
•Orthostatic Proteinuria
•Osmotic Diuresis
•Osmotic Nephrosis
•Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
•Oxalate Nephropathy
•Page Kidney
•Papillary Necrosis
•Papillorenal Syndrome (Renal-Coloboma Syndrome, Isolated Renal Hypoplasia)
•PARN Mutations and Kidney Disease
•Parvovirus B19 and the Kidney
•The Peritoneal-Renal Syndrome
•POEMS Syndrome
•Posterior Urethral Valve
•Podocyte Infolding Glomerulopathy
•Post-infectious Glomerulonephritis, Post-streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
•Post-infectious Glomerulonephritis, Atypical
•Post-Infectious Glomerulonephritis (IgA-Dominant), Mimicking IgA Nephropathy
•Polyarteritis Nodosa
•Polycystic Kidney Disease
•Posterior Urethral Valves
•Post-Obstructive Diuresis
•Preeclampsia
•Propofol infusion syndrome
•Proliferative Glomerulonephritis with Monoclonal IgG Deposits (Nasr Disease)
•Propolis (Honeybee Resin) Related Renal Failure
•Proteinuria (Protein in Urine)
•Pseudohyperaldosteronism
•Pseudohypobicarbonatemia
•Pseudohypoparathyroidism
•Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome
•Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection)
•Pyonephrosis
•Pyridium and Kidney Failure
•Radiation Nephropathy
•Ranolazine and the Kidney
•Refeeding syndrome
•Reflux Nephropathy
•Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
•Renal Abscess, Peripnephric Abscess
•Renal Agenesis
•Renal Arcuate Vein Microthrombi-Associated Acute Kidney Injury
•Renal Artery Aneurysm
•Renal Artery Dissection, Spontaneous
•Renal Artery Stenosis
•Renal Cell Cancer
•Renal Cyst
•Renal Hypouricemia with Exercise-induced Acute Renal Failure
•Renal Infarction
•Renal Osteodystrophy
•Renal Tubular Acidosis
•Renin Mutations and Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease
•Renin Secreting Tumors (Juxtaglomerular Cell Tumor)
•Reset Osmostat
•Retrocaval Ureter
•Retroperitoneal Fibrosis
•Rhabdomyolysis, Rhabdomyolysis related to Bariatric Sugery
•Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Renal Disease
•Rubraca (rucaparib)-related Increase in Creatinine
•Sarcoidosis Renal Disease
•Salt Wasting, Renal and Cerebral
•Schistosomiasis and Glomerular Disease
•Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia
•Scleroderma Renal Crisis
•Serpentine Fibula-Polycystic Kidney Syndrome, Exner Syndrome
•Sickle Cell Nephropathy
•Silica Exposure and Chronic Kidney Disease
•Sri Lankan Farmers’ Kidney Disease
•Sjögren’s Syndrome and Renal Disease
•Synthetic Cannabinoid Use and Acute Kidney Injury
•Kidney Disease Following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Kidney Disease Related to Stem Cell Transplantation
•TAFRO Syndrome
•Tea and Toast Hyponatremia
•Tenofovir-Induced Nephrotoxicity
•Thin Basement Membrane Disease, Benign Familial Hematuria
•Thrombotic Microangiopathy Associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy
•Trench Nephritis
•Trigonitis
•Tuberculosis, Genitourinary
•Tuberous Sclerosis
•Tubular Dysgenesis
•Immune Complex Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Due to Autoantibodies to the Proximal Tubule Brush Border
•Tumor Lysis Syndrome
•Uremia
•Uremic Optic Neuropathy
•Ureteritis Cystica
•Ureterocele
•Urethral Caruncle
•Urethral Stricture
•Urinary Incontinence
•Urinary Tract Infection
•Urinary Tract Obstruction
•Urogenital Fistula
•Uromodulin-Associated Kidney Disease
•Vancomycin-Associated Cast Nephropathy
•Vasomotor Nephropathy
•Vesicointestinal Fistula
•Vesicoureteral Reflux
•VGEF Inhibition and Renal Thrombotic Microangiopathy
•Volatile Anesthetics and Acute Kidney Injury
•Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
•Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemic Glomerulonephritis
•Warfarin-Related Nephropathy
•Wasp Stings and Acute Kidney Injury
•Wegener’s Granulomatosis, Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
•West Nile Virus and Chronic Kidney Disease
•Wunderlich syndrome
•Zellweger Syndrome, Cerebrohepatorenal Syndrome

 

MANAGEMENT OF KIDNEY DISEASES.

Management of kidney diseases involve:

Procedures used in the management of kidney disease include chemical and microscopic examination of the urine (urinalysis), measurement of kidney function by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the serum creatinine; and kidney biopsy and CT scan to evaluate for abnormal anatomy. Dialysis and kidney transplantation are used to treat kidney failure; one (or both sequentially) of these are almost always used when renal function drops below 15%. Nephrectomy is frequently used to cure renal cell carcinoma.

 

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT WORLD KIDNEY DAY?

 

World Kidney Day (WKD) is a global health awareness campaign focusing on the importance of the kidneys and reducing the frequency and impact of kidney disease and its associated health problems worldwide.

World Kidney Day is observed annually on the 2nd Thursday in March. At the start of this holiday, 66 countries observed this date in 2006. Within two years, this number rose to 88. WKD is a joint initiative of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations (IFKF). This holiday was intended to raise awareness about conditions of the kidney; although many are treatable, they are a secondary medical concern of the greater population.

 

WHAT IS THE THEME OF 2019 WORLD KIDNEY DAY?

The theme of World Kidney Day 2019 is to raise awareness and get countries to incorporate specific strategies for improving the lives of kidney patients within the broader framework of the policies set out in many countries for non-communicable diseases.

The theme for World Kidney Day 2019 is ‘Kidney Health for Everyone Everywhere’. Over 850 million people across the world are afflicted by chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD have become the world ’s sixth fastest growing cause of death. Each year such diseases account for nearly 2.4. million people globally. Chronic kidney diseases can be caused by other manifest conditions like diabetes, blood pressure or other disorders and lead to progressive loss of kidney function, often over a period of several years.

The World Kidney Day is a joint initiative of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) and the International Federation of Kidney Foundations (IFKF) to focus attention on a silent killer that afflicts one in ten people globally.

World Kidney Day 2019’s theme targets the disparity and inequity in kidney health in countries across the world. Acute kidney injury (AKI), an important driver of chronic kidney diseases is found to afflict lower and middle income countries more. Of the 13 million people afflicted by AKI, and 1.7 million deaths a year, nearly 85% of the cases are found in countries with lower median income.

 

 

 

kidney 2.jpg

The World Bank defines a Lower Income Country as: “For the current 2019 fiscal year, low-income economies are defined as those with a GNI per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas of $995 (INR 70,000) or less in 2017; lower-middle-income economies are those with a GNI per capita between $996 and $3,895; upper middle-income economies are those with a GNI per capita between $3,896 and $12,055; high-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $12,056 or more.”

This year’s theme aims at raising awareness and getting countries to incorporate specific strategies for improving the lives of those suffering from chronic kidney ailments within the broader framework of the policies and guidelines set out in many countries for non-communicable diseases.

In 2015, India became the first country to develop specific national targets and indicators aimed at reducing the number of deaths from non-communicable diseases in line with the World Health Organisation’s ‘Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020’. However, a Lancet report last year suggests that the country’s burden of non-communicable diseases is growing; while these are typically present in people over the age of 55 in many developed countries, in India it strikes a decade earlier and is manifest in individuals over the age of 45. While India focusses on cardiovascular and chronic respiratory diseases — two categories of diseases that make the most significant contribution to its mortality burden, the national guidelines on NCDs have not focussed on kidney ailments. Now that is surprising as there are, according to some estimates, over 250,000 people in India suffer from renal failure and can be saved by renal transplants.

An article published in the Indian Journal of Urology states: “ The prevalence of end-stage renal disease requiring transplantation in India is estimated to be between 151 and 232 per million population. If an average of these figures is taken, it is estimated that almost 220,000 people require kidney transplantation in India. Against this, currently, approximately 7500 kidney transplantations are performed at 250 kidney transplant centers in India. Of these, 90% come from living donors and 10% from deceased donors. The data are not as accurate as would be desirable due the absence of a national transplant registry.”

This data suggests that a two-pronged strategy is acutely needed in India where on the one hand, focus should be on increasing a national donor registry so that more organs can be harvested from deceased donors, and on the other hand, concentrate on early identification and prevention of chronic kidney diseases. It is in this context that this year’s World Kidney Day is especially relevant for India as it calls for Universal Health Coverage for prevention and early treatment of kidney disease. To this end, this year’s campaign has focussed on measures in every country to improve kidney care, such as:
•Access to clean potable water
•Tobacco Control
•Healthy and nutritious diet
•Kidney screening at primary health care centres
•Screening of high-risk individuals and early diagnosis
•Affordable treatment through universal healthcare
•Ensure kidney patients receive basic health care and monitoring for conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure
•Equitable and sustainable access to advanced health care — affordable and accessible dialysis and other treatment
•Transparency in policies governing organ donations and transplants

These measures will help foster cooperation and bolster the fight on a global level against, not only the expensive and often inadequate access to infrastructure that’s needed for surgery and dialysis in countries like India but also, fight against the cultural bias against organ donation in many countries that has made dialysis the default option and led to an increase in mortality from kidney diseases.

In India, the National Dialysis Programme was rolled out in 2016, as an initiative of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare with the involvement of private players in district hospitals across the country. The Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis programme aims at providing these life-saving procedures at very nominal and negligible costs and makes dialysis accessible to India’s impoverished rural populace. This programme has helped reduce impoverishment, especially in villages, by saving out-of-pocket expenditure for patients.

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION:

It can be clearly stated that any form of disease that has to do with the kidney falls under lifestyle diseases that could be prevented by making decisions in terms of health,eating and living that are potent enough to make the kidney last longer by maintaining it properly.

 

REF:

 

2019 Campaign

https://www.thehealthsite.com/diseases-conditions/world-kidney-day-2019-how-this-years-theme-aims-at-tackling-the-economics-of-renal-diseases/

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Kidney_Day

 

https://www.kidney.nyc/types-of-kidney-disease/

 

©mlstcommunications 2019

 

 

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